Prominent Armenians arrested from Constantinople on April 24, 1915.
An article mention Bessie Murdoch who was a nurse settled down at the Turkish borders to serve refugees in that area.
Armenian and Greek Families, men, women, and children leaving Turkey after the genocide. People are holding sacs and bags with their personal belongings. People are waiting for the aid of the Near East Relief.
Boys standing in a line to get soup in an orphanage, Bardizag Turkey.
Children and teenagers in an orphanage in Konia, Turkey.
Children in line for treatment at the Near East Relief eye clinic in Constantinople. Near East Relief operated health clinics, a tuberculosis hospital, and at least three dedicated trachoma orphanages in the city in the early 1920s. This photograph appeared in the October 1922 issue of The New Near East magazine.
Children raising their hands to soldiers in uniform on a railway car. Children often begged at railway stops. The small child at left has bare feet and extremely ragged clothes. The writing and seal show that this was a Transcaucasian Railway car. H.C. Jaquith’s notes identify this as either Batoum or Tiflis, 1920. Both cities were stops on the railway.
Young Near East Relief orphans in uniform leaving Constantinople in the wake of the Smyrna disaster. The Near East Relief warehouse is visible in the background.
Near East Relief worker Emma Darling Cushman with young girls just prior to the evacuation from Turkey. Cushman went on to head orphanages in Greece.
Photograph of two men leading a camel. Although camels are not indigenous to Turkey, they were widely used as draft animals in the Ottoman empire. Near East Relief sometimes used camels to distribute supplies in harsh terrain where cars, trucks, and trains were unable to travel. Although the location of this photograph is unknown, it was most likely taken somewhere in Turkey.
View of train station, most likely in Kars, Turkey. Numerous train tracks are visible in the foreground. The building is a long one-story structure with prominent arched windows in the Roman style. The date is unknown.
Dr. Mabel Elliott with an emaciated young patient. Many children arrived at the orphanages suffering from severe malnutrition.
Social and political conditions for non-Muslims deteriorated even further when the Russo-Turkish War ended. The despotic Sultan Abdul Hamid formed a special Kurdish military force called the Hamidiye. The true purpose of these well-armed cavalry regiments was to torment and assault Ottoman Armenians in what became known as the Hamidian Massacres. From Harpers Weekly, December 14, 1895
The CUP blamed the Armenians for the CUP’s disastrous attempt to invade Russia in December 1914. The CUP accused Armenians of collaborating with the Russian army. The Ottoman government used the failed invasion as a pretext for a plan to destroy the Ottoman Armenian population.
The first deportations took place in the city of Zeitun on April 8, 1915. Men were marched out of town and executed. Women and children were forced from their homes and loaded into railroad cars bound for the desert. The Zeitun deportations served as a training event for the Ottoman killing squads.
Near East Relief magazine produced for private circulation, July 1922, featuring a young woman making stoockings in the Near East Relief Armenian Girls’ Industrial Orphanage in Constantinople
Near East Relief magazine produced for private circulation, April 1921, featuring the Trachoma Orphanage for contagious eye diseases
Ernest Yarrow (second from right) standing with a large group of American and Armenian relief workers at the orphanage in Kars prior to the forced evacuation from that area. Yarrow was the director of Near East Relief in the Caucasus region.
Postcard of Near East Relief orphans in Constantinople. A group of Near East Relief boys in Boy Scout uniforms greet the first large group of American tourists to visit Constantinople since World War I began. Despite the ongoing political situation, the Near East maintained a thriving tourism trade. Visitors from America purchased orphan-made souvenirs and postcards like this one to benefit Near East Relief’s work.
Ambassador Morgenthau’s July 16, 1915 telegram to the U.S. Department of State referencing deportations of Armenians.
Azadouhi as an infant with Dr. Gannaway. Zadi was emaciated and ill when Near East Relief workers in Marash, Turkey took her in.
The original caption reads: “These are some of the small number saved from starvation. These little ones have not yet begun to gain flesh, but their digestion is recovered. I stood by the bedside of a dying girl with whom Dr. Little had worked for weeks exhausting all her meager facilities for recovering the health of the digestive organs.”
–H.B. McAfee, Managing Director, Beirut. Diyarbekir, c. 1922.
Five thousand children were evacuated from Near East Relief orphanages in Harput alone. The children traveled 500 miles on foot and by donkey to Syria. Boys and girls take turns riding donkeys on the road to Syria, circa 1922.
General Kemal Mustafa led the Turkish Nationalism movement and became the first president of the Republic of Turkey.
Soldiers (probably Russian) standing over human remains in a burned building. Many Armenians were deported to remote locations and massacred.
This map of the modern Republic of Turkey features a soldier and a woman draped in the Turkish flag, watched over by Kemal Pasha Atatürk.
Ismail Enver Pasha as an officer in the Ottoman army. With Talaat Pasha and Djemal Pasha, Enver Pasha was one of the main architects of the Genocide.
The Defense of Van
Children from Konia Orphanage
U.S.S. Datchet unloads American-donated food in Batoum
Children evacuate Harput with donkeys and camels
Bernice Everett in Brousa
The Great Fire of Smyrna
Ships in the harbor at Smyrna
Near East Relief transported an estimated 15,000 children across the Aegean Sea in barges to new orphanages in Greece. Constantinople, c. 1922.
Dr. Ruth Parmelee with Armenian babies at the American Hospital in Harput, Turkey. Dr. Parmelee joined Near East Relief through American Women’s Hospitals organization.
Dr. Elfie Richards Graff
Miss Bessie Murdoch
Miss Bernice J. Everett
Miss Mary Caroline Holmes
New Near East magazine cover featuring orphans at Near East Relief headquarters in Constantinople boarding a barge bound for Greece after the burning of Smyrna.
Two Armenian women in holiday attire
George W. Coleman’s original caption reads “The plight of the Armenian refugees in and around Constantinople is pitiful in the extreme . . . I visited several of the eight camps through the courtesy of the Near East Relief and I saw hundreds of the men, women and children who seem to be suspended between heaven and hell so far as their future is concerned. I saw families in little tepee tents, under the broiling sun, with hardly floor space sufficent to lie down.”
Rescued children with Armenian priest
James L. Barton welcomes a child to Urfa
Child refugee on the street in Harpoot
Postcard of Smyrna